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Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ)

A potent antioxidant, pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), is becoming available as a health supplement.

PQQ was discovered in some 50 years ago; it occurs commonly at very low levels in the natural world. It is a micronutrient that is essential for the well being of most plant and animal organisms. PQQ is made by a few bacteria, but it is not made in the human body. PQQ appears to have an estimated minimum daily requirement (MDR) for humans of about 1.0 microgram or less a day.

Common food sources of PQQ are fresh fruits such as parsley, green pepper, green tea, papaya, and kiwi. Some foods with a low PQQ content are celery, applrs, oranges, and milk.

PQQ is easily destroyed by cooking, so highly processed foods tend have a PQQ deficiency. Because it is an essential micronutrient, it is sometimes called a vitamin and it is also more potent than most antioxidants, such as CoQ10, carnosine, resveratol, lipoic acid and L-carnitine.

PQQ has the unique capability of promoting replication of the mitochondrial structures within the human cell which in turn provide most of the energy for cellular functions, such as enabling the nucleus to express its DNA.

PQQ is now available in large quantities and is being promoted as a longevity supplement with 10 or 20 milligram doses. The safety of PQQ has been addressed with short-term human trials on healthy adults to meet patent requirements. No adverse effects were noted with dosages of 20 or 60 milligrams of PQQ per day.

The PQQ molecule is water soluble, so it is not expected to accumulate in the body over time.

PQQ has been reported effective in treating Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. It has been reported to protect from neurotoxicity caused by materials such as mercury,

Animal studies report "given immediately before induction of stroke, PQQ significantly reduces the size of the damaged brain area." Which is taken to imply that if a person suffers a stroke, PQQ may improve the recovery process.

Loss of mitochondrial function, such as via aging or trauma, has been implicated in a non-specific, widespread inflammatory response in the body when body cells die without being cleaned up with the apoptosis mechanism and the mitochondrial fragments enter the bloodstream where the immune system treats them as foreign bodes and mounts a full immune system response. PQQ has been claimed to address this problem.

PQQ appears to possibly have extensive and far-reaching bodily effects. If you do use it, keep in mind that the PQQ dosage in available supplements is some 10,000 times more concentrated than evolution apparently designed us for. Do have medical support, begin with a comprehensive blood assay to establish a health baseline, and maintain careful ongoing monitoring of all body functions.

Further PQQ reading sources.

The URLs for these references, obtained from the Life Extension Journal, Winter 2010 edition, will be listed as they become available.

Chowanadisai W, Bauerly KA, Tchaparian E, et. al. Pyrroloquinoline quinone stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis through cAMP response element binding protien phosphorylation and increased PGC-1 alpha expression. J Biol Chem 2010 Jan 1;285:142-52.

Rucker R,Chowanadisai W, Nakani M. Potential physiological importance of pyrroloquinoline quinone. Altern Medl Rev. 2009 Sep;14((3):268-77.

Nakano M, Ubukata K, et. al. Effect of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) on mental status of middle-aged and elderly persons. FOOD Style. 2009;21:13(7):50-3.

Stites T, Storms D, Bauerely K, et. al. Pyrroloquinoline quinone modulates mitochondral quantity and function in mice. J Nutr 2006 Feb;Feb:136(2):390-6.

Selected PQQ references -

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Selected Mitochondria references

Selected Sepsis references

Eschew Consensus Reality!

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